The son of Poseidon and Hippothoe. He was regarded as
the founder of the city Taphos on the island with the
The son of Poseidon. He traveled from the Peloponnesus
to southern Italy where he founded Tarentum (Greek:
Taras, the current Taranto). According to others, the
city was founded by Heracles (Virgil III, 551).
Tartarus is the lowest region of the world, as far below
earth as earth is from heaven. According to the Greek
poet Hesiod, a bronze anvil falling from heaven would
take nine days and nights to reach earth, and an object
would take the same amount of time to fall from earth
into Tartarus. Tartarus is described as a dank, gloomy
pit, surrounded by a wall of bronze, and beyond that
a three-fold layer of night. Along with Chaos, Earth,
and Eros, it is one of the first entities to exist in
the universe. While Hades is the main realm of the dead
in Greek mythology, Tartarus also contains a number
of characters. In early stories, it is primarily the
prison for defeated gods; the Titans were condemned
to Tartarus after losing their battle against the Olympian
gods, and the hecatoncheires stood over them as guards
at the bronze gates. When Zeus overcomes the monster
Typhus, born from Tartarus and Gaia, he hurls it too
into the same abyss. However, in later myths Tartarus
becomes a place of punishment for sinners. It resembles
Hell and is the opposite of Elysium, the afterlife for
the blessed. When the hero Aeneas visits the underworld,
he looks into Tartarus and sees the torments inflicted
on characters such as the Titans, Tityos, Otus and Ephialtes,
and the Lapiths. Rhadymanthus (and, in some versions,
his brother Minos) judges the dead and assigns punishment.
The Myth Of Tartessos. The Greeks were fascinated by
the notion of a mythical and fabulously wealthy kingdom
in the far west beyond the Pillars of Hercules. It was
a rich emporium of valuable and precious metals and
the luxurious lives led by its inhabitants linked it
in their minds to the legends of Atlantis and Hesperides,
the Isles of the Blessed, which were located in the
same direction and were maybe even in the same place.
They called it Tartessos. Strabo, 58 BC-25 CE, who described
it in his Geography was drawing very largely on Herodotos,
484 BCE - 420 BCE, who described in detail the immense
wealth and generosity of the Tartessans and particularly
of their King Arganthonios, "The Silver One". This included
the story of a Greek sailor called Koliaos whose ship
was blown off course and landed in Tartessos. After
being royally entertained for some months, his ship
was loaded up with silver and he was sent home. The
story is also told of the Tartessans, in the 6th century
BCE, giving the Phocaean Greeks 1 1/2 tons of silver
to pay for a defensive wall around their city to keep
out the Persians. And yet apart from a few fragments
of trade goods in Andalusia in Southern Spain there
is neither sign of a Tartessan civilization, nor any
indication where the capital city might have been. The
Phoenicians, who were based on some offshore islands
near Cadiz, used Tartessan silver to pay tribute to
the Assyrians who had captured their hometown of Tyre
in the 7th century BCE. One result of this, it is claimed,
was the collapse of the bullion market in Babylon. And
yet apart from the mines of Rio Tinto which have been
producing copper and silver and gold for 5000 years
- the oldest mines in the world still to be in production
- there is no evidence of this wealth nor what it bought
or built. The Ancient Hebrews had their own myths of
the fabulous and even sinful wealth of Tartessos or
Tarshish as they called it. In Psalm 72 we can read
of the kings of Tarshish bringing presents, in Jonah
we can see how Jonah's plans to go to Tarshish so infuriated
the Lord that he had Jonah swallowed by a whale as a
punishment. In Chronicles, we read of King Jehosaphat
building ships to go to Tarshish and the fury of the
Lord causing them to be wrecked. In Kings we read of
ships of Tartshish bringing the gold to decorate the
Palace and the Temple of King Solomon, and in Kings
and in Chronicles we can read of these same Ships of
Tarshish bringing Peacocks and Apes and Ivory, which
can only have been from India! So not only was Tarshish/Tartessos
a legendary place but also their ships were legendary
and capable of crossing the Indian Ocean. Tarshish is
in fact the only European place mentioned in the Old
Testament, yet apart from the 5000-year-old mining town,
suggestively named Tharsis, in Andalusia in Southern
Spain, nobody knows where Tarshish/Tartessos was located.
Yet it is here in Andalusia that the Pillars of Hercules
are located and here that Hercules/Heracles stole the
Cattle of Geryon as one of his Ten Labours. And this
is the home of the Spanish cult of the Bull as much
as Knossos, buried under modern day Heraklion, was the
home of the Minoan cult of the Bull. And it is almost
certain that the Minoans traded in Tartessan Bronze
for over 2000 years, supplying the Sumerians and the
Ancient Egyptians and indeed the whole of the Mediterranean
basin and beyond. Today only the ancient mines of Rio
Tinto and Tharsis stand as mute witnesses to the past
glories of Tartessos. In historical times the Romans
made them the main source for financing the construction
and expansion of the Empire and that in turn made Merida
the nearest town to the mines, the tenth largest city
of the Roman Empire, and Julius Caesar tapped their
wealth to make good his claim to become Emperor. But
before the Romans came to Andalusia, what we know of
Tartessos is largely speculation, myth, legend and fable.
One of Pleiades, Taygete was loved by Zeus but she prayed
for Artemis to help her. Artemis turned her into a doe,
but Zeus took advantage of her when she was unconscious
and she gave birth to Lacedaemon.
A mythical genus of priests that in ancient times migrated
from Crete, via Cyprus, to Rhodos. They were regarded
as the ones who reared Poseidon, and were particularly
skilled in metallurgy. They were occasionally identified
with the Cyclopes, Dactyls, or Curetes. When they slowly
turned into vicious magicians they were killed by the
A seer among the Cyclopes.
A Greek deity with healing powers, son of Asclepius
and brother of Hygieia. He cult originated in Hellenistic
times at Pergamum (ca. 200 BCE). Telesphorus was portrayed
with a wide cloak and a low hood, occasionally wearing
a with a Phrygian cap. Images can be found on coins
and reliefs from Asia Minor.
A sea nymph, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. The tenth
of Jupiter's moons is named after her.
The son of Ares, and husband of Procne.
One of the nine Muses of ancient Greece. Terpsichore
is the Muse of dancing and the dramatic chorus, and
later of lyric poetry. Hence the word terpsichorean,
pertaining to dance. She is usually represented seated,
and holding a lyre. According to some traditions, she
is the mother of the Sirens with the river-god Achelous.
She is also occasionally mentioned as the mother of
Linus by Apollo.
The personification of the fertile ocean. She married
her brother Oceanus and had over 3000 children by him,
they were the springs, lakes, rivers of the world. Tethys
was the god-mother of Rhea and raised her during the
civil war between the Titans and the Olympians.
Thalassa, also known as Thalatta, Thalath, or Tethys
is the Greek personification of the sea. Aether and
Hemera were her parents. Sheıs called the mother of
Aphrodite by Zeus. She was the wife of Pontus and the
mother of nine Telchines, who are known as fish children
because they have flippers for hands; yet, they have
the head of a dog. In some Greek stories, she is known
as the mother of all. "Thalassa even goes by fish mother"
This name is not only because she bore Telchines, itıs
also because she is creator of all sea life. Thalassaıs
name means 'sea'. A mercantile sea kingdom is also associated
with her name: Thalassocracy. In Greece, she is specifically
the personification of the Mediterranean Sea. Thalassa
did not have god-like qualities. She was more of a metaphor
than a person. She was also a vast, lonely sea on non-populated
shores. So, she was never a goddess.
The Muse who presided over comedy and pastoral poetry.
She also favored rural pursuits and is represented holding
a comic mask and a shepherd's crook (her attributes).
Thalia is also the name of one of the Graces (Charites).
A legendary minstrel from Thrace who, because of his
many victories, had become so vain that he challenged
the Muses themselves to a contest. For this insult they
struck him with blindness.
The Greek personification of death who dwells in the
lower world. In the Iliad he appears as the twin brother
of Hypnos ("sleep"). Both brothers had little to no
meaning in the cults. Hesiod makes these two spirits
the sons of Nyx, but mentions no father. Thanatos was
portrayed as a youngster with a inversed torch in one
hand and a wreath or butterfly in the other. He appears,
with Hypnos, several times on Attican funerary vases,
so-called lekythen. On a sculpted column in the Temple
of Artemis at Ephese (4th century BCE) Thanatos is shown
with two large wings and a sword attached to his girdle.
Thaumas ("wonder") is a Greek sea god and the son of
Pontus and Gaia. By the Oceanid Electra he fathered
the Harpy and Iris.
1. The daughter of Zeus and the Boeotian nymph Iodame.
She is the wife of King Ogyges. Their daughter is Aulis.
2. One of the Amazons. 3. According to Pindar, a daughter
of Asopus and Metope; beloved of Zeus, and wife of Zethus.
Theia is a minor Greek goddess, one of the Titans. Her
husband and brother is Hyperion with whom she had three
children - Helios (the sun), Eos (the dawn) and Selene
Themis is one of the daughters of Uranus and Gaia. She
is the personification of divine right order of things
as sanctioned by custom and law. She has oracular powers
and it is said that she build the oracle at Delphi.
By Zeus she is the mother of the Horae and the Moirae.
Themis is depicted as a stern looking woman, blindfolded
and holding a pair of scales and a cornucopia. The Romans
called her Justitia.
Thetis was one of the Nereids. Zeus desired her, but
she rejected his advances. The goddess Themis then revealed
that Thetis was fated to bear a son who was mightier
than his father; fearing for his dominion, Zeus gave
Thetis as bride to a mortal, Peleus, and all the gods
attended the wedding. Thetis bore one son, Achilles,
whom she tried unsuccessfully to make immortal. In one
version of the story, she anointed the infant's body
with ambrosia and then placed it upon a fire in order
to burn away the mortal parts; when she was interrupted
by the child's horrified father, she deserted their
household in a rage. In a later version, she dipped
the child in the river Styx holding him by the heel;
all the parts that the river touched became invulnerable,
but the heel remained dry. Achilles was later killed
in the Trojan war.
A daughter of Phorcys and Ceto. With Poseidon she became
the mother of the Cyclop Polyphemus.
Thriae are three Greek, holy sisters who are virgins.
They recieved their name, Thriae, because they are lesser
goddesses of nature who can foresee the future or foretell
the unknown by inspiration, magic, signs, or omens.
They learned the art of prophesizing from the god Hermes.
Some suggest that they are meant to be white-haired
and old or that the image is supposed to look like bees
covered with pollen. They appear to be women with wings;
probably their hair is literally powdered with white
flour. They live under a ridge of Mt. Parnassus, and
the word Thriae means "pebbles," because the future
was foretold by tossing pebbles.
The staff carried by Dionysus and his attendants. It
is topped with a pine cone and decorated with vine and
The first meaning of the name Tisiphone is one of the
Erinyes. Tisiphone was the avenger of murder. She fell
in love with Cithaeron whom she killed by having a snake
from her head bite him. The second meaning of the name
Tisiphone is the daughter of the Alcmaeon (one of the
Epigoni) and his wife Manto, she was the sister of Amphilochus.
In an attack of madness, Alcmaeon left his children
behind with Creon of Corinth. Jealous of Tisiphoneıs
beauty Creonıs wife sold her into slavery, with none
of the involved parties realizing at first that the
buyer was Tisiphoneıs father. When Alcmaeon later returned
to Corinth to reclaim his children, he recognized his
daughter and also got his son back.
The Titanomachy was a war between Zeus and the Titans.
This war lasted for 10 years. Zeus had the Cyclopes,
Hecatonchires, Themis, Prometheus, and the Olympian
pantheon an his side. The Titans were defeated and placed
in Tartarus. There to be guarded for eternity by the
In Greek mythology, the Titans are a race of godlike
giants who were considered to be the personifications
of the forces of nature. They are the twelve children
(six sons and six daughters) of Gaia and Uranus. Each
son married, or had children of, one of his sisters.
They are: Cronus and Rhea, Iapetus and Themis, Oceanus
and Tethys, Hyperion and Theia, Crius and Mnemosyne,
and Coeus and Phoebe.
A mountain deity who was the arbitrator in a musical
contest between Apollo and Pan.
A Greek goddess, originally of fortune and chance, and
then of prosperity. She was a very popular goddess and
several Greek cities choose her as their protectress.
In later times, cities had their own special Tyche.
She is regarded as a daughter of Zeus (Pindar) or as
a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys (Hesiod). She is associated
with Nemesis and with Agathos Daimon ("good spirit").
Tyche was portrayed with a cornucopia, a rudder of destiny,
and a wheel of fortune. The Romans identified her with
Typhon is the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus. His mate
is Echidna and both were so fearful that when the gods
saw them they changed into animals and fled in terror.
Typhon's hundred, horrible heads touched the stars,
venom dripped from his evil eyes, and lava and red-hot
stones poured from his gaping mouths. Hissing like a
hundred snakes and roaring like a hundred lions, he
tore up whole mountains and threw them at the gods.
Zeus soon regained his courage and turned, and when
the other gods saw him taking his stand, they came back
to help him fight the monster. A terrible battle raged,
and hardly a living creature was left on Earth. But
Zeus was fated to win, and as Typhon tore up huge Mount
Aetna to hurl at the gods, Zeus struck it with a hundred
well-aimed thunderbolts and the mountain fell back,
pinning Typhon underneath. There the monster lies to
this very day, belching fire, lava and smoke through
the top of the mountain. Echidna, his hideous mate,
escaped destruction. She cowered in a cave, protecting
Typhon's offspring, and Zeus let them live as a challenge
to future heroes. Echidna and Typhon's children are
the Nemean Lion, Cerberus, Ladon, the Chimera, the Sphinx,
and the Hydra.